The nursing process related to alteration in respiratory status provides a framework to review information about neonatal respiratory assessment. The information includes definitions of terms used to document nursing observations. Risk factors affecting an alteration in respiratory status are outlined and diseases associated with respiratory dysfunction, many unique to the neonate, are discussed including the pathophysiology and defining characteristics. Nursing diagnoses are briefly stated. Presentation of a case study demonstrates the nursing interventions based on on the assessments made on the infant with progressing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). An evaluation is made of the effect of nursing assessment on changing an infant’s respiratory status. Keys to accurate nursing assessment of neonatal respiratory status are observation, recognition of contributory disease processes, and implementation and evaluation of appropriate nursing interventions

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