Dramatic improvement in morbidity and mortality associated with neonatal respiratory failure has evolved over the last 30 years. Favorable survival statistics can be directly related to the institution and refinement of assisted ventilation techniques. Short-and long-term pulmonary complications continue to be of major concern. New ways to support the neonate in respiratory failure are being investigated. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to find ways to safely and effectively treat these infants while decreasing the morbidity associated with therapy. Two such therapies, both experimental and controversial, which are gaining widespread recognition, are high-frequency ventilation (HFV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

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