Heart transplantation is now an accepted method for treatment of haart disease in children, but transplantation in pediatric recipients continues to present unique challenges. The differences in indications and the complexity of surgery for congenital heart disease are only two of those challenges. A successful means of mechanical support is not available, which puts children at special risk of dying while waiting for transplantation. In addition, physiologic differences produce issues about management after transplantation, including use of immunosuppressive agents, control of infection, identification of transplant coronary artery disease, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. Because of the longer life expectancy desired from pediatric transplantation, measurement of quality of life must be more comprehensive. This broad range of special demands means that although the state of pediatric heart transplantation is positive, there are areas for continued improvement.