Since the first lung transplantation was attempted in 1963, the use of the procedure has gradually increased. The first successful operation was performed in 1983, and during the past decade the number of lung transplantations and heart-lung transplantations has increased rapidly, with 75% of recipients surviving past the first year. Chronic rejection is the greatest obstacle to long-term survival. In this article, a brief history of lung transplantation is provided. Recipient selection criteria are reviewed, together with the listing process and donor organ criteria. Recommendations for care of patients before and after lung transplantation are outlined, with a description of the postoperative course, including complications, pain control, rehabilitation, discharge procedures, and outpatient treatment.

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