Thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) provides a rapid, accurate, cost-effective method of optimizing the atrioventricular delay in dual-chamber pacemakers. In addition to measurements of cardiac output, TEB provides other hemodynamic indices such as systolic time interval, left cardiac work index, and end diastolic index. The availabiIity of this additional data can assist the clinician in the objective determination of the optimal atrioventricular delay for individual patients. Thoracic electrical bioimpedance is completely noninvasive and takes only minutes to perform.

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