In any pregnancy, there is an approximate 3% to 5% chance that a fetal complication will occur. The most familiar prenatal diagnostics cannot be performed until the fetus is well into gestation, and most involve invasive procedures along with their inherent risks. In light of these facts, many noninvasive prenatal screening and diagnostic tests have been developed, the newest using recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology in the examination of fetal cells. Through these procedures, genetic coding errors and chromosomal disruptions may be detected. This article discusses the currently available prenatal and screening diagnostic tests for genetic disorders with a focus on the latest technology.

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