Acute pain assessment and management and their accurate documentation have been identified by The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organization as significant components of the emergency department experience. Research studies have historically focused on the subjective perception of the physician or nurse for evidence of acute musculoskeletal pain assessment for the patient; however, the lack of interrater reliability between caregivers and patients has illustrated the need to evaluate the patient’s perception of pain. A review of the literature for acute musculoskeletal pain in the emergency department shows that a patient’s pain experience is often underestimated, and severity of pain often does not predict pain management. Relying on patient satisfaction surveys as a surrogate marker for effectiveness of pain management is inadequate, and factors, such as age, gender, or ethnicity, may contribute to a disparity in pain management. The purpose of this article is to review pain management practices for patients with acute musculoskeletal pain who present to the emergency department and to provide recommendations for advanced practice nurses working with this emergency department patient population. Promising areas for future research include targeting mechanisms of pain with specific medications, identifying vulnerable populations at risk for inadequate pain management, and universal use of a standardized pain rating scale.

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