The metabolic syndrome is a clinical condition that is a powerful predictor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hypertension, abdominal obesity, high blood glucose levels, and abnormal blood lipid levels characterize metabolic syndrome. Therapeutic treatment of the metabolic syndrome confers a significant risk reduction for both type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular events. In the hospital setting, the management of hyperglycemia, one of the clinical components of the metabolic syndrome, has been secondary in importance to the condition that prompted admission. Hyperglycemia in the hospitalized patient has been associated with increased lengths of stay, higher rates of hospital-acquired infections, and increased mortality. Early recognition and treatment of hyperglycemia and the associated metabolic components that comprise the metabolic syndrome may reduce morbidity and mortality in the hospital setting. More aggressive interventions will aid in reducing costs while simultaneously improving patient care and safety.