Advances in pacemaker technology over the last 25 years have made cardiac pacing in infants and children a safe and practical therapy. Some of the technical challenges encountered with the first permanent pacemaker implantation in children during the early 1960s have been solved with miniaturized generators, lithium batteries, noninvasive programmability, and improved placement techniques.1–3 This chapter reports common causes of bradydysrhythmias in children, reviews the indications for permanent pacemaker implantation in children, describes current pacing systems appropriate for children, and identifies nursing implications and potential pacemaker complications unique to children

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