Chronic hypoventilation syndrome can be caused by many disease states, although it is more commonly seen in neuromuscular disorders. Assessment of hypoventilation includes measurement of carbon dioxide level, respiratory muscle strength, pulmonary function testing, and any other system involved, such as cardiac dysfunction or sleep abnormalities. Often, chronic hypoventilation is initially diagnosed during an episode of acute respiratory failure. The use of noninvasive ventilation with positive pressure, negative pressure, or gravitational devices can be an effective treatment option for some patients, thus obviating the need for a tracheostomy. Noninvasive ventilatory equipment such as the nasal or oral masks, mouthpieces, bi-level positive airway pressure, chest cuirasses, ponchos, or the iron lung, and the rocking bed or pneumobelt can each ventilate a certain type of patient adequately. Each has specific indications, advantages, and disadvantages and must be individualized to the patient’s needs

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