Chest physiotherapy (CPT) is performed on neonates with actual or potential pulmonary problems. The focus of this review is on research related to the effectiveness of or the physiologic alterations related to CPT. Findings from this review indicate that CPT in neonates: 1) did not significantly improve oxygenation or secretion removal in the first 24 hours of life in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome, 2) increased oxygen consumption, and 3) prevented post-extubation atelectasis. Nursing considerations when performing this procedure, contra-indications, and documented side effects are included in this review

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