Clinical investigation of the Novacor ventricular assist system has been ongoing since 1984. Major successes have been achieved using the device as a bridge to heart transplant. This system uses an electrically driven, pulsatile pump implanted in the left upper abdominal quadrant. The system has demonstrated the ability to provide long-term patient support, a feature that allows patients to become mobile and active once recovered from their initial heart failure. By the time of transplant, nutrition is restored, activity tolerance is improved, and most patients require no inotropic support. The system allows patients to recover from cardiogenic shock by providing total systemic circulatory support

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