Intra-abdominal hypertension occurs in 50% of all patients admitted to the intensive care unit and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Intra-abdominal hypertension is defined as a sustained, pathologic rise in intra-abdominal pressure to 12 mm Hg or more. Patients with intra-abdominal hypertension may progress to abdominal compartment syndrome. Early identification and treatment of this condition will improve patient outcome. Patients at risk for intra-abdominal hypertension include those with major traumatic injury, major surgery, sepsis, burns, pancreatitis, ileus, and massive fluid resuscitation. Predisposing factors include decreased abdominal wall compliance, increased intraluminal contents, increased peritoneal cavity contents, and capillary leak/fluid resuscitation.