Left ventricular dysfunction and renal dysfunction are common chronic conditions that frequently coexist in the same individual, and both are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Disorders in 1 organ generally lead to dysfunction in the other, and this bidirectional interaction serves as the pathophysiological basis for cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Until recently, CRS has been neither well defined nor well understood, making its diagnosis and treatment challenging for clinicians. This article presents the pathophysiology of CRS and the new classification for types of CRS, therapeutic interventions targeting CRS, and novel therapies on the basis of the 2010 Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference recommendations.

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