Hypertension was once a rarity in children, affecting less than 1% of the pediatric population. Now, with rates on the rise, hypertension is estimated to affect approximately 3.6% of children in the United States. The increasing rate of obesity in children, especially in those older than 10 years, is likely the reason for the dramatic rise in the hypertension rate. Hypertension in adults is the leading cause of premature death throughout the world and is associated with kidney damage, myocardial infarctions, and transient ischemic attacks. Research on the long-term health outcomes of hypertension in children is lacking, but we can assume that children with hypertension are more likely to transition into adulthood with hypertension and experience related comorbidities. Understanding the causes of hypertension and its treatment is essential to reducing these comorbidities. This review discusses the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension...

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