A global crisis of antibiotic resistance is ongoing, especially with resistant gram-negative pathogens including Pseudomonas spp, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms. The increasing rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is also a concern. One newer intravenous cephalosporin (ceftaroline) was approved in 2010, and 2 new intravenous cephalosporin–β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (ceftolozane-tazobactam and ceftazidime-avibactam) have recently been approved to try to combat these resistant organisms in adult patients.

Although it is certainly exciting to have additional antibiotic options to treat severe or resistant infections, unfortunately none of these agents offers a new mechanism of action or a new class of antibiotic. Rather, they extend the spectrum of coverage against resistant organisms relative to other antibiotics. Although individual pricing will vary by institution, these agents generally cost more than older comparable antibiotics, which will most likely affect formulary inclusion and criteria...

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