Optimal control of blood glucose requires a balance of diet, exercise, and in some cases, medications. Many factors can cause a state of imbalance, resulting in extremes of glucose control. Hypoglycemia is defined generally as a blood glucose level lower than 50 mg/dL. Although the causes of hypoglycemic episodes are diverse, the management is always aimed at normalizing the plasma glucose concentration. Treatment ranges from simple carbohydrate ingestion in mild to moderate cases to intravenous administration of glucose when the reaction is severe and loss of consciousness occurs. Recognition of warning signs and prompt treatment is essential in all cases

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