Critical care in the United States costs more than $108 billion annually; 6 million patients are admitted every year to intensive care units. Technological advances and aging populations have increased the complexity of clinical management in critical care units. In parallel, an increasing emphasis on value-based models and health outcomes, some of which are distal to the critical care unit, challenges us to look at the role and function of all health care providers. Value-based health care has moved the focus from fee-for-service to health outcomes and quality. Achievement of this goal is contingent on efficient and effective workforce models and clear articulation of nursing roles.

Contemporary health delivery models have increased the emphasis on teamwork, specific populations, evidence-based practice, coordination of care, data management, and monitoring of outcomes. Together, these components of health delivery models sound like a...

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