Infection with HIV is a chronic condition that requires daily medication to suppress viral replication. With appropriate treatment, people living with HIV have a life expectancy approaching that of the general population. However, they are at increased risk for comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, renal disease, type 2 diabetes, neurologic conditions, and cancers, often with worse outcomes than in patients without HIV. When they are admitted to critical care settings, care considerations, particularly regarding antiretroviral therapy, must be addressed. Antiretroviral therapy is critical for successful management of HIV infection and should be continued when possible during intensive care unit stays. However, many antiretroviral regimens result in drug-drug interactions, adverse drug-related events, and secondary complications such as insulin resistance and prolonged QT intervals. Critical care nurses have unique opportunities to provide safe, unbiased, and compassionate care that promotes health for a population of people who have a history of being stigmatized.

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