Adverse effects of opioids and the ongoing crisis of opioid abuse have prompted providers to reduce prescribing opioids and increase use of multiple nonpharmacologic therapies, nonopioid analgesics, and co-analgesics for pain management in trauma patients. Nonopioid agents, including acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, gabapentinoids, ketamine, central α2 agonists, and lidocaine, can be used as adjuncts or alternatives to opioids in the trauma population. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, virtual reality, and mirror therapy are modalities that also may be helpful in reducing pain. Performing pain assessments is fundamental to identify pain and evaluate treatment effectiveness in the critically ill trauma patient. The efficacy, safety, and availability of opioid-sparing therapies and multimodal pain regimens are reviewed.

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