There are approximately 250 000 children admitted annually to critical care units, with improved patient outcomes owing in part to advances in technology and clinical management. Despite these advancements, hospitalization-related factors, such as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), negatively impact patient outcomes. Post-intensive care syndrome is a complex and common result of a patient’s admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and can occur within 2 days after a patient receives critical care. Post-intensive care syndrome has been defined within the adult population; however, there is not a standardized diagnosis in the pediatric population. Children admitted to critical care units are predisposed to several risk factors of PICS, including endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, that can cause cognitive, emotional, or physical dysfunction. In addition, medications used to assist with safe and effective critical care interventions have been shown to cause exacerbation of delirium, depression, dependence, withdrawal, anxiety, bowel dysfunction,...

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