Fever—an elevated body temperature—is a prominent feature of a wide range of disease conditions and is a common finding in intensive care, affecting up to 70% of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The causes of fever in the ICU are multifactorial, and it can be due to a number of infective and noninfective etiologies. The production of fever represents a complex physiological, adaptive host response that is beneficial for host defense and survival but can be maladaptive and harmful if left unabated. Despite any cause, fever is associated with a wide range of cellular, local, and systemic effects, including multiorgan dysfunction, systemic inflammation, poor neurological recovery, and an increased risk of mortality. This narrative review presents the current state-of-the-art knowledge on the definition, pathophysiology, etiology, and outcomes of fever in the ICU and highlights evidence-based findings regarding the management of fever in the intensive care setting.

You do not currently have access to this content.