Accurate and safe monitoring of infants and children requires knowledge of their unique physiology, especially cardiovascular function, pulmonary physiology, and metabolic function. These individual features influence the equipment selection, as well as data interpretation. Although some adult equipment is adaptable for pediatric use, many specifications must be tailored to pediatric needs. Vascular monitoring in pediatric patients requires specific knowledge of insertion procedures and complications, fluid maintenance, and hemodynamic norms, indexed to body surface area. Valid data interpretation requires an understanding of the distinctive clinical responses intrinsic to the pediatric patient. Likewise, maintenance care for pediatric patients always includes attention to precise fluid balance, thermoregulation, and metabolic needs. Finally, all pediatric patients require constant vigilance to protect the integrity of their monitoring systems and, ultimately, the safety of these patients. Failure to address these concerns may result in complications or invalid data

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