Outcomes research took hold in the late 1980s. Because of the rising costs of health care, policymakers demanded an objective analysis of treatments and interventions as demonstrated by cost-effective patient outcomes. More recently, outcomes management programs have surfaced. In contrast to outcomes research, which is concerned with effectiveness, outcomes management is concerned with efficiency. Therefore, this one concept, outcomes, has moved in two related but different directions. Understanding outcomes from both the research and management perspectives is a challenge facing the nursing profession
Professional Issues, Technical Innovations, and Clinical Trends| February 01 1995
Outcomes: Two Directions—Research and Management
Bonnie Mowinski Jennings, RN, DNSc, FAAN, Colonel, U.S. Army Nurse Corps
Presented at the Ninth Annual Mellen Conference on Acute and Critical Care Nursing, Cleveland, Ohio, September 16, 1994.
Reprint requests to Colonel Bonnie Mowinski Jennings, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA 98431-5000.
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AACN Adv Crit Care (1995) 6 (1): 79–88.
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Bonnie Mowinski Jennings; Outcomes: Two Directions—Research and Management. AACN Adv Crit Care 1 February 1995; 6 (1): 79–88. doi:
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