Patients with cancer receive antineoplastic therapy that affects their ability to produce and maintain circulating levels of blood cells at any given time. Frequent and varied transfusion requirements necessitate a highly developed and specialized practice of blood component therapy in cancer care. In this article, the author discusses factors affecting the selection of blood components and the influence that expert critical care nurses can contribute to safe and effective transfusion therapy. Administration of leukocyte-poor or cytomegalovirus-negative erythrocytes, pheresed platelets, and granulocyte transfusions are described

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