This is the second in a series of articles that discusses cardiac surgery in patients who belong to special populations. Women are often the victims of sex bias regarding their referral to cardiac testing, and are consequently sicker when they present for heart surgery. Pregnant women undergoing cardiac surgery require vigilant care while undergoing surgery, with anticoagulant administration and valve selection to achieve positive maternal and fetal outcomes. Progressive improvements in technology, perioperative care, and pharmaceutical development has made cardiac surgary in Jehovah’s Witnesses safer than in the past.

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