Much has been learned in the past decade, through quality medical and nursing research, regarding the pathophysiology and management of congestive heart failure. Primary care practitioners are challenged to apply the latest data to the clinical management of these patients when there is clear evidence of improvement in the control of symptoms and quality of life. Because of the complexities of the disease process, older adults with congestive heart failure require a comprehensive approach that is particularly well suited to the knowledge and skills of the advanced practice nurse

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