Iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome is an increasingly recognized issue among adult patients in the intensive care unit. The prolonged use of opioids and benzodiazepines during the intensive care unit stay and preexisting disorders associated with their use put patients at risk of developing iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome. Although research to date is scant regarding iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome in adult patients in the intensive care unit, it is important to recognize and adequately manage iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome in order to prevent possible negative outcomes during and after a patient’s intensive care unit stay. This article discusses in depth 8 studies of iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome among adult patients in the intensive care unit. It also addresses important aspects of opioid and benzodiazepine iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome, including prevalence, risk factors, and assessment and considers its prevention and management.