Use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators has become standard therapy for patients at high risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Although acceptance of the device is generally high among patients and their families, quality of life and psychosocial issues associated with use of the defibrillators deserve greater attention to improve outcomes. Psychosocial issues, their ramifications, and theory-and evidence-based approaches to improving outcomes are described.

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