The epidemiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia is well described for adults, but little information is available on risk factors for this disease in children.


To identify predisposing factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in children.


A cross-sectional prospective cohort study of 96 patients in a 9-bed pediatric intensive care unit was performed. Variables examined were demographic characteristics, inpatient care, medications, nutrition, invasive procedures, and characteristics of mechanical ventilation. Data were analyzed by using Pearson χ2 analysis, Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests, odds ratios, and forward stepwise logistic regression.


Occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia correlated positively with use of nasoenteral tubes (odds ratio, 5.278; P < .001), intermittent administration of nutritional formula (odds ratio, 6.632; P = .005), emergency reintubation (odds ratio, 2.700; P = .02), use of vasoactive drugs (odds ratio, 5.108; P = .009), duration of mechanical ventilation (P < .001), and length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (P < .001) and in the hospital (P = .01).


Use of vasoactive drugs, presence of a nasoenteral tube, and duration of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit were independent risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia.

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