To test an interventional patient skin integrity bundle, the InSPiRE protocol, for reducing pressure injuries in critically ill patients in an Australian adult intensive care unit.
Before and after design: patients receiving the intervention (InSPiRE protocol) were compared with a similar control group who received standard care. Data collected included demographic and clinical variables, skin assessment, presence and stage of pressure injuries, and score on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA).
Overall, 207 patients were enrolled, 105 in the intervention group and 102 in the control group. Most patients were men (mean age, 55 years). The groups were similar on major demographic variables (age, SOFA scores, intensive care unit stay). Cumulative incidence of pressure injuries was significantly lower in the intervention group (18.1%) than in the control group (30.4%) for skin injuries (, P = .04) and mucous injuries (t = 3.27, P≤ .001). Significantly fewer pressure injuries developed over time in the intervention group (log rank = 11.842, df = 1, P≤ .001) and intervention patients had fewer skin injuries (> 3 pressure injuries/patient = 1/105) than did control patients (> 3 pressure injuries/patient = 10/102; P = .02).
The intervention group, receiving the InSPiRE protocol, had a lower cumulative incidence of pressure injuries, and fewer and less severe pressure injuries that developed over time. Systematic and ongoing assessment of the patient’s skin and risk for pressure injuries as well as implementation of tailored prevention measures are central to preventing pressure injuries.