Nosocomial infections are frequent complications in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of nosocomial infections in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.
Prospectively collected data on patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage between January 2009 and June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had nosocomial infection during the hospital stay were compared with patients who did not. Poor outcome was defined as death or discharge to a long-term nursing facility.
At least 1 nosocomial infection developed in 26% of 202 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. The most common infections were pneumonia (18%), urinary tract infection (12%), meningitis or ventriculitis (3%), and bacteremia (1%). On univariate analysis, independent predictors of nosocomial infection were intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, low score on the Glasgow Coma Scale at admission, hyperglycemia at admission, and treatment with mechanical ventilation. On multivariate regression analysis, the only significant predictor of nosocomial infection was intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.2–11.4; P = .02). Patients with nosocomial infection were more likely than those without to require a percutaneous gastrostomy tube (odds ratio, 33.1, 95% CI, 23.3–604.4; P < .001) and to have a longer stay in the intensive care unit or hospital without a significant increase in mortality. Patients with nosocomial pneumonia were also more likely to have a poor outcome (P < .001).
Pneumonia was the most common infection among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.