Approximately 8% to 10% of patients in surgical intensive care units (ICUs) will have a hospital-acquired pressure injury (PI) during their stay. These injuries may result in increased pain, increased costs, and longer stays. Although stage 1 PIs are the most common type and can deteriorate to a more severe stage, no studies have addressed the clinical course or outcomes of stage 1 PIs in ICU patients.
Alderden and colleagues conducted a retrospective chart review to identify stage 1 PI outcomes. They found the following:
36% of PIs persisted until discharge, 32% worsened to a stage 2 or greater injury, and 32% healed.
Factors that contributed to PI worsening included older age, higher lactate level, higher creatinine level, lower hemoglobin level, and lower peripheral capillary oxygen saturation.
The Braden Scale parameters were not associated with stage 1 PIs.
To prevent further injury, the...