Approximately 209 000 in-hospital adult cardiopulmonary arrests occur each year in the United States. In children, reported incidence is 1.8 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events per 100 admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit. Most cardiopulmonary arrests occur in a critical care unit, the operating room, or the emergency department. Based on the American Heart Association’s “Get With the Guidelines” data, survival to discharge is estimated at 28% for neonates, 38% for children, and 26% for adults. These statistics suggest that 2 to 3 out of 10 cardiac arrest victims survive and, thus, survival rates remain extremely low. Survival outcomes are directly related to a shorter time between cardiopulmonary arrest and first shock and initiation of high-quality CPR2–4  consisting of compressions with 2- to 2.4-in (5-6 cm) depth for adults and 1.5-in (4 cm) depth for children, and...

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