The worldwide burden of critical illness is estimated at 20 million. With advances in technology and critical care medicine, more people are surviving.

About 25% to 50% of survivors have some combination of newly acquired or worsened physical, cognitive, and psychiatric impairments, known as post–intensive care syndrome (PICS),2,3  lasting months to years (Table 1). Relatives are also affected, and those effects (PICS–family) begin during the patient’s stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). The effects on family members are characterized by emotional and behavioral responses of stress and/or anxiety associated with the experience of having a critically ill loved one.4,8,9 

The ABCDEF bundle (awakening/breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, early ambulation, family empowerment/engagement) has contributed to reducing PICS.2,5,7  Another psychosocial strategy to improve communication and promote psychological recovery is the use of ICU diaries, illness...

You do not currently have access to this content.