The success of critical care medicine has historically been gauged by short-term mortality outcome. With technological advances, many patients now survive what were previously fatal critical illnesses, generating an expanding population of critical care survivors. Many survivors suffer with new or worsening impairments in physical, cognitive, or mental health status arising after a critical illness and persisting beyond acute care hospitalization, which has been termed post–intensive care syndrome (PICS). This term can be applied to a survivor or to a family member who often experiences significant social and psychiatric burdens caring for a survivor of critical illness.1,2  It is estimated that PICS develops in more than 2.4 million Americans who survive critical illness each year, including approximately two-thirds of Medicare beneficiaries who survive critical illness. As a consequence of both an aging population and the dramatic improvement in...

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