Microbiome dysbiosis (ie, a microbial imbalance within a particular anatomical region), is implicated in the progression of chronic illnesses and the response to illness or injury. The microbiome community, characterized by using DNA sequencing, is described via its α-diversity (ie, number and distribution of microbe types) and β-diversity (ie, similarity and overlap between samples). Higher α-diversity is indicative of a healthy microbiome. A growing body of evidence indicates that physiological alterations in response to critical illness and the provision of critical care interventions (eg, mechanical ventilation and antibiotics) contribute to pulmonary microbiome dysbiosis. Therefore, understanding and characterizing microbiome dysbiosis can also inform diagnostic and therapeutic efforts among critically ill patients. The authors of the article reviewed here sought to identify and describe the pulmonary microbiome in patients receiving prolonged mechanical intervention and to evaluate the preliminary effects of an oral suctioning intervention on...

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