Accurately measuring the risk of pressure injury remains the most important step for effective prevention and intervention. Relative contributions of risk factors for the incidence of pressure injury in adult critical care patients are not well understood.


To develop and validate a model to identify risk factors associated with hospital-acquired pressure injuries among adult critical care patients.


This retrospective cohort study included 23 806 adult patients (28 480 encounters) with an intensive care unit stay at an academic quaternary care center. Patient encounters were randomly split (7:3) into training and validation sets. The training set was used to develop a multivariable logistic regression model using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method. The model’s performance was evaluated with the validation set.


Independent risk factors identified by logistic regression were length of hospital stay, preexisting diabetes, preexisting renal failure, maximum arterial carbon dioxide pressure, minimum arterial oxygen pressure, hypotension, gastrointestinal bleeding, cellulitis, and minimum Braden Scale score of 14 or less. On validation, the model differentiated between patients with and without pressure injury, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85, and performed better than a model with Braden Scale score alone (P < .001).


A model that identified risk factors for hospital-acquired pressure injury among adult critical care patients was developed and validated using a large data set of clinical variables. This model may aid in selecting high-risk patients for focused interventions to prevent formation of hospital-acquired pressure injuries.

You do not currently have access to this content.