Children with congenital heart disease have unique risk factors associated with the pathophysiology of an abnormal heart; hence, this population is most likely at increased risk of acquiring a pressure injury during hospitalization. Few studies have included patients with congenital heart disease or examined the factors unique to these patients.
To identify risk factors associated with pressure injury development in children with congenital heart disease.
This retrospective study used a convenience sample from hospital-acquired data at an urban, tertiary, free-standing children’s hospital. Patients were admitted to the intensive care unit between 2011 and 2018 with a diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Chi-square analysis was done to compare risk factors between patients, and logistic regression analysis was used to predict the probability that a patient would acquire a pressure injury.
Eighty-two (30.5%) of the 269 patients in this study acquired pressure injuries. Sixty-six patients with pressure injuries met the inclusion criteria for analysis; 82% of those patients had had corticosteroids prescribed, and 71% were receiving anticoagulants. The overall predictive model for acquiring a pressure injury indicated an odds ratio of 3.25 (95% CI, 1.58-6.65) with an anticoagulant and an odds ratio of 9.98 (95% CI, 4.68-21.3) with a prescribed corticosteroid (P < .001 for both factors). Inpatient mortality was significantly associated with pressure injuries.
Corticosteroid and anticoagulant use were contributing factors in the development of pressure injuries in children with congenital heart disease.