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About the American Journal of Critical Care


The American Journal of Critical Care (AJCC) is the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses' (AACN's) preeminent peer-reviewed publication for communicating advances in critical care research. This bimonthly journal’s mission is to create a space for our readers and members of AACN to engage with original research and innovation in critical care. Authors are invited to submit original clinical, translational, and health services research studies that address questions relevant to critical care nursing, interprofessional practice, and critical care delivery. AJCC will accept rigorously conducted cross-sectional and observational studies, qualitative and mixed methods studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Brief reports and letters to the editors are encouraged as well. Outstanding reviews are usually invited by the editorial staff, and these reviews are typically concise, focused, and provide an evidence-based perspective on a topic of importance to interdisciplinary critical care.

Editors in Chief

Cindy L. Munro, PhD, RN, ANP-BC
Dean and Professor
School of Nursing and Health Studies
University of Miami
Coral Gables, Fla

Lakshman Swamy, MD, MBA (He/Him)
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Cambridge Health Alliance
Boston/Cambridge, Mass

Clinical Advisers

Cindy Cain, DNP, RN, CNS, CCRN
Meredith Padilla, PhD, RN, CCRN-CMC-CSC
Sarah Wells, MSN, RN, CEN, CNL
American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
Aliso Viejo, Calif

Editorial Fellow


Founding Coeditors

Christopher W. Bryan-Brown, MD, and Kathleen Dracup, DNSc, RN

Editorial Board

Michele Balas, PhD, RN, CCRN, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE; Susan Bartos, PhD, RN, CCRN, Atrium Health Sanger Heart and Vascular Institute, Charlotte, NC; Rhonda Board, PhD, RN, CCRN, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH; Leanne Boehm, PhD, RN, ACNS-BC, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN; Elizabeth J. Bridges, PhD, RN, CCNS, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Linda L. Chlan, PhD, RN, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Deena Kelly Costa, PhD, RN, Yale University, New Haven, CT; Tammy Eaton, PhD, RN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Margo A. Halm, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR; Alvin D. Jeffery, PhD, RN, CCRN, FNP-BC, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN; Michelle E. Kho, PhD, PT, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Janet D. Pierce, PhD, APRN, CCRN, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS; Grant A. Pignatiello, PhD, RN, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; Mary Lou Sole, PhD, RN, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL; Lauren R. Sorce, PhD, RN, CPNP-AC/PC, CCRN, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; Hilaire Thompson, PhD, RN, ARNP, ACNPC-AG, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Kathleen M. Vollman, MSN, RN, CCNS, CCRN, Advancing Nursing LLC, Detroit, MI.

Editorial Office

American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
27071 Aliso Creek Road, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656-3399
(800) 899-1712, (949) 362-2000
Website:; e-mail: [email protected]

Publishing Manager: MICHAEL MUSCAT
Managing Editor: KATIE L. SPILLER, MS
Art Director: MICHI L. TURNER
Production Designer: MATTHEW EDENS
Peer Review Coordinator: BETTY SCHIEFELBEIN
Publishing Coordinator: SAM MARSELLA

American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Theresa Davis, PhD, RN, NE-BC, CHTP

Jennifer Adamski, DNP, APRN, ACNP-BC, CCRN

Kirsten Skillings, MA, APRN, CCRN, CCNS

Nicole Fontenot, DNP, APRN, ACNP-BC, CCNS, CCRN

Jarrod Atkinson, MS, RN, NEA-BC, CCRN
Joseph Falise, MSN, RN, CCRN, CSC
Veronica Gurule, MSN, RN, CCRN
Desiree Hodges, MBA, BSN, RN, CCRN, NE-BC
Tiffany Mullen, MSN, RN, ACCNS-P, CCRN
Janet Mulroy, DNP, ACNP, CCNS, CCRN
Tonka Williams, MHA, BSN, RN, CMSRN

Chief Executive Officer
Dana Woods, MBA

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE (Print ISSN 1062-3264, Online ISSN 1937-710X) is published bimonthly (January, March, May, July, September, November) by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN), 27071 Aliso Creek Road, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656-3399. Telephone: (949) 362-2000. FAX: (949) 362-2049. Email: [email protected]. Copyright 2024 by AACN. All rights reserved. The AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE is an official peer-reviewed publication of AACN. AACN journals do not charge author fees. Revenues are based on membership dues, individual and institutional subscriptions (including aggregated collections), advertising, reprints, single-copy sales, online pay-per-view options, and reuse permissions. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage retrieval system, without permission of AACN. For all permission requests, please contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Customer Service, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. (978) 750-8400. Prices on bulk reprints of articles available on request from AACN at (800) 899-1712. Printed on acid-free paper. The AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE is indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Science Citation Index Expanded, ISI Alerting Services, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EBSCO collections, Ovid collections, and Scopus.

Annual Subscriptions

Individual rates: US, print and online, $69; outside US, US $120. Only online subscriptions are available in China, India, the Middle East, and Africa. Institutional rates: US, print and online, $875; print only, $650; online only, $525. Institutional rates for all countries outside the US: print and online, $1080; print only, US $870; online only, US $525.

For membership and subscription questions: AACN members, individual nonmembers, call (800) 899-2226 or (949) 362-2000 or email [email protected]; for institution subscription questions: call (800) 336-6348 or (847) 504-7845 or email [email protected]. Pay per view of individual articles and issues is available on the respective article and issue pages. Change of address: Send notices to AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE, Subscription Service Department, 27071 Aliso Creek Road, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656-3399. Allow 4 to 6 weeks for change to take effect.


AACN observes strict guidelines about the appearance of advertising in its journals and does not endorse any particular advertiser, brand, company, product, or service. Advertising of products such as alcohol, tobacco, recreational drugs, weapons or firearms, gambling, pornography, or political advertisements are prohibited. Advertisements we display in print or on the journal websites are not related to editorial decision-making and appear at random, unrelated to reader behavior. AACN staff have final authority on approving advertisements. A ratio of 40:60 advertising to editorial pages or lower is considered acceptable, but a minimum of 25% of content published in AACN journals must be editorial in nature. For more information about AACN’s print and digital advertising rules and guidelines, inquire at [email protected].

If you are interested in an advertisement in the American Journal of Critical Care (or Critical Care Nurse), please contact The Walchli Tauber Group (see below).

Product/Device/Pharmaceutical Advertising

Companies A-M

Greg Pessagno
National Sales Manager
The Walchli Tauber Group
Phone: (410) 688-0182
Email: [email protected]

Companies N-Z

Kelley Russell
National Sales Manager
The Walchli Tauber Group
Phone: (214) 704-4628
Email: [email protected]

Recruitment Advertising

Anne Green
Recruitment/Education Sales Manager
The Walchli Tauber Group
Phone: (864) 616-7797
Email: [email protected]

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