Progress toward understanding the biochemical basis of human individuality spans centuries, but tissue rejection remains the primary clinical challenge of organ transplantation. This article highlights the chronology of scientific discoveries made in the quest to overcome the rejection associated with transplantation. The purposes of this review are to raise clinicians' awareness of the advances in surgery, genetics, immunology, and immunosuppression that have contributed to the current knowledge of tissue rejection and to indicate potential new directions in this challenging field.
Curriculum development for preparation of acute care nurse practitioners requires a comprehensive process. To develop a program for their preparation at a large university, the faculty examined needs of the target patient population and care delivery system; scope of acute care nurse practitioner practice; current guidelines for the education of primary care nurse practitioners; evolving guidelines for the didactic and clinical education of acute care nurse practitioners; educational requirements of governing or licensing and certifying bodies; and placement of this new role within the existing healthcare team structure. A curriculum was then developed using a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients ventilated in the assist-control mode experienced a change in oxygenation, respiratory rate, inspiratory:expiratory ratio, heart rate, blood pressure or acid-base balance when suctioned with a closed tracheal suction system. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental, within-subject, repeated-measures design was used. SUBJECTS: 18 patients ventilated on a fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.47 +/- 0.17 and 2.3 +/- 5.0 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure. INTERVENTIONS: Two suction passes were performed, with measurements at baseline, immediately after the first suction pass, immediately before the second suction pass, immediately after the second suction pass, 2 minutes after the second suction pass and 5 minutes after the second suction pass. No hyperoxygenation was used. RESULTS: Significant differences were seen over time for arterial oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and inspiratory:expiratory ratio. Arterial oxygen saturation decreased to less than 90% in four subjects (range 88% to 89%), with a maximum fall of 9%. No significant differences were seen for heart rate, blood pressure, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, time to nadir (lowest arterial oxygen saturation) or recovery time. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects ventilated in the assist-control mode and suctioned with a closed tracheal suction system did not experience significant changes in cardiovascular or acid-base parameters when suctioned without hyperoxygenation. Although most subjects did not become desaturated, four subjects experienced desaturation at one or more intervals. To prevent desaturation, hyperoxygenation should be used before and after suctioning with a closed tracheal suction system.