Measles pneumonia is a life-threatening complication in children infected with the measles virus. The increased number of reported cases over the last several years suggests a need for heightened awareness of the complication among pediatric critical care nurses. Application of alternative ventilation strategies in the critical care setting continues to be explored in children with ARDS refractory to more conventional ventilation support, because the mortality and morbidity associated with ARDS in children remain high. Patients who present with diffuse, bilateral lung injury, such as in measles pneumonia, may be candidates for alternative ventilation strategies. Few investigators have studied alternative ventilation strategies in the pediatric ICU setting. Therefore, nursing research related to the impact of nursing interventions during alternative ventilation strategies is needed. Specifically, evaluation of ET suctioning practices and other interventions that influence oxygen delivery and consumption are necessary to plan effective care during alternative ventilation strategies and improve patient outcome. Prevention of measles pneumonia is clearly the preferred "treatment." Preventive healthcare is paramount in providing optimal care for children. However, until we can address the environmental factors that predispose children to communicable diseases such as measles, critical care nurses must be knowledgeable about the assessment and management of measles pneumonia.

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