Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is no longer considered a “fringe” treatment. A quick Internet search shows that hyperbaric oxygen therapy is an increasingly popular treatment option for a variety of injuries and disorders. Hyperbaric treatment centers are appearing even in relatively small communities throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe. The primary mechanism of action of hyperbaric oxygen—enhancement of tissue oxygenation—makes this therapy particularly useful for the resolution of hypoxic conditions such as traumatic crush injuries, necrotizing fasciitis, gas gangrene, carbon monoxide poisoning, and anemia due to extensive blood loss. It has also been used with various degrees of success to treat many other disorders, including migraine headaches, morbidity due to radiation damage, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, ulcerative colitis, and anorexia nervosa.

Approximately 17 million persons in the United States (6.2% of the population) have diabetes, and an additional 1...

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