Patients who undergo coronary angiography may experience harmful stress. Research suggests that music therapy improves the level of comfort in patients; the authors determine the effect of patient-controlled music on the psychophysiological stress response to coronary angiography.

Undergoing invasive procedures, such as coronary angiography, can be acutely stressful for many patients. Many factors contribute to patients’ level of stress: previous experience, pain, anxiety, unfamiliar environment, and fear. Stress produces a physiological and biochemical response that is unique for each person with respect to duration, intensity, and overall impact. This response is elicited when stressors, such as pain or anxiety or a combination thereof, are physically and psychologically demanding for the patient. The psychophysiological stress response involves activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system and is characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output. The...

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