End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring refers to the noninvasive measurement of exhaled carbon dioxide and is most useful when applied directly to patient care.1 Although commonly used in intubated patients receiving mechanical ventilation, this technique is sometimes used in non-intubated patients.2–,4 The term “capnometry” refers to the measurement and display of the concentration of exhaled carbon dioxide either as a percentage (%) or as partial pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). If the gas measuring device also includes a calibrated, visual waveform recording of the concentrations of inspired and exhaled carbon dioxide that can be examined on a breath-by-breath basis or for long-term trends, the instrument is called a capnograph.4 Although this respiratory monitoring technology is not new to the critical care environment, controversy still exists regarding potential benefits and limitations in clinical practice....

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