• ✓All patients receiving mechanical ventilation, as well as those at high risk for aspiration (eg, decreased level of consciousness, enteral tube in place), should have the head of the bed (HOB) elevated at an angle of 30° to 45° unless medically contraindicated.1,7 (Level VI)

  • ✓Use an endotracheal tube (ET) with a dorsal lumen above the endotracheal cuff to allow drainage by continuous suctioning of tracheal secretions that accumulate in the subglottic area.1,2,8,13 (Level VI)

  • ✓Do not routinely change, on the basis of duration of use, the patient’s ventilator circuit.1,14,17 (Level VI)

  • Critically ill patients who are intubated for >24 hours are at 6 to 21 times the risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)1,2,18,20...

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