Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a group of virulent, drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria that are increasingly the cause of infection. Such infections are associated with a high morbidity and mortality and increased health care costs. Management of these infections requires recognition of patients at risk for multidrug-resistant microbial colonization and infections, identification of the causative organism, and rapid, appropriate treatment. Lack of awareness of proper isolation of patients harboring these organisms and delay in prescribing antibiotics such as tigecycline and polymyxins contribute to the spread of infection in intensive care units. Surveillance and infection control measures are paramount in preventing outbreaks of infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Critical care nurses are in a vital position to monitor patients at risk for such infections and to promote infection prevention measures.

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