The prevalence of recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection has been steadily increasing since 2000. Consequently, alternative treatments to the standard antibiotic therapies are now being considered. One alternative treatment is fecal microbiota transplant. Although fecal microbiota transplant is relatively new—and not appealing to most people—it has been around for many years and has great promise as an inexpensive, safe, and efficient treatment of refractory and recurrent C difficile infection. With a better understanding of the intricacies of the colonic microbiome and its role in colonic physiology and pathophysiology, critical care nurses will recognize that fecal microbiota transplant has the potential to become the standard of care for treatment of recurrent or refractory C difficile infection. The American College of Gastroenterology and the Infectious Diseases Society of America provide the latest treatment guidelines for care of patients with these clostridial infections.

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