Carol Rauen, rn, ms, ccns, ccrn, pccn, cen, rn-bc, the department editor, is an independent clinical nurse specialist in The Outer Banks of North Carolina. Carol welcomes feedback from readers and practice questions from potential contributors at


Tricia Pifer, rn, cns, msn, ccrn, critical care clinical nurse specialist at Sutter Roseville Medical Center Sacramento, California, contributed the CCRN questions.


Heather Dietzler, rn, msn, cne, a clinical nurse educator for Ministry Health Care in Marshfield, Wisconsin, contributed the CMC questions.


To be sung to the tune of “Summer Nights” from the musical Grease, written by John Jacobs and Warren Casey and sung by Olivia Newton-John and John Travolta.

  1. A patient is admitted with sepsis, blood pressure (BP) 104/52 mm Hg, heart rate (HR) 115/min, body temperature 37.9°C, respiratory rate (RR) 28/min, cyanotic...

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