Worldwide, about 15 million infants are born prematurely each year. Technological advances, including invasive mechanical ventilation, play a major role in the survival of extremely preterm babies. Those who survive may have prolonged morbid conditions that result in long-term sequelae. Nurses face several challenges during the hospitalization of these infants. Vigilant care, monitoring, and careful handling of the infants can prevent infections and long-term complications. Newer, less invasive technologies are promising for improved outcomes in extremely preterm infants.

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